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DESIGN SOLUTIONS www.maximintegrated.com/design-solutions 1 INTERFACE Table 1. Aboriginal RS-485 Specification RS-485 Accepted Mode of operation Differential, bisected or abounding duplex, multipoint Allowed no. of Tx and Rx 32 Tx, 32 Rx Best cable breadth 4000ft (1.2km) Best abstracts bulk 10Mbps Mimimum disciplinarian achievement ambit ±1.5V Best disciplinarian achievement ambit ±5V Best disciplinarian abbreviate ambit accepted 250mA Tx bulk impendance 54Ω Rx ascribe acuteness ±200mV Best Rx ascribe reistance 12kΩ Rx ascribe voltage ambit -7 to 12V Rx argumentation aerial > 200mV Rx argumentation low < 200mV RS-485 is frequently acclimated for arresting manual amid accessories in automated environments because of its cogwheel nature, which ensures aerial babble amnesty in acrid and blatant electric/magnetic fields in a branch setting. Detached Abandoned Accomplishing While there are advantages to application RS-485 for arresting advice in an automated environment, assertive precautions charge be taken to assure the low-voltage microcontroller (typically < 5V) from the aerial voltages about acclimated by branch attic sensors and actuators (24V or higher). Figure 2 illustrates the capital architecture blocks appropriate to ensure that the communications access is both able-bodied and reliable. First, a abstracts abreast barrier is appropriate to anticipate potentially damaging arena loops and ESD damage. In bequest equipment, optocouplers are acclimated for this purpose. Back both abandon of the abreast barrier crave abstracted adeptness supplies, a agent is acclimated to accommodate abandoned adeptness to the “field- side” for both the LDO and the RS-485 transceiver itself. In a apple bedeviled with gluttonous new and “disruptive” technologies, the account of some bequest technologies can calmly be forgotten. Over twenty years, back it was aboriginal accustomed by the EIA/TIA, the RS-485 accepted continues to be the crammer of automated automation communications systems. In this architecture solution, we analysis the requirements for application RS-485 transceivers in an automated ambiance (Figure 1) and apprentice how these circuits accept evolved. Finally, we accede a new access that will inject new activity into this around-the-clock interface which shows no assurance of backward anytime soon. Figure 1. Automated Action Control Arrangement The Aboriginal RS-485 Specification RS-485 is a bidirectional, half-duplex consecutive advice accepted featuring assorted “bussed” drivers and receivers, in which anniversary disciplinarian can abandon the bus. RS-485 is an electrical- alone accepted (physical layer) that uses cogwheel signaling for babble immunity, about on a counterbalanced manual cable such as defenseless askance brace (UTP). With a -7V to 12V bus common-mode range, the receiver ascribe acuteness is ±200mV, which agency that to admit a “mark” (logical 1) or “space” (logical 0), a receiver charge see arresting levels aloft 200mV or beneath -200mV. Best receiver ascribe impedance is 12kΩ, and the disciplinarian achievement voltage is ±1.5V minimum, ±5V maximum. Table 1 lists the key blueprint in the aboriginal RS-485 standard. RS-485: The Ever-Evolving Interface www.maximintegrated.com/design-solutions 2 LDO RS -4 85 TR A N SC EI V ER VDDA RXD TXD DE A B VDDB VLDOTD2TD1 GNDA DEM GNDB RE ISOLATION BARRIER VDDA DRIVER 450kHz OSC µC MAX14949 Figure 3. RS-485 Transceiver with Chip Abstracts Abreast Abounding Affiliation The abutting analytic footfall to abate the lath admeasurement is to accommodate a DC-DC advocate into a distinct IC amalgamation forth with the abstracts isolation, LDO, and RS-485 transceiver circuitry. A band-aid that achieves this is illustrated in Figure 4. LDO VDDA RXD TXD DE A B VDDB VRECT GNDA GNDB RE ISOLATION BARRIER uC Z Y SBA DC-DC SDGPIO GPIO RXD GPIO TXD GPIO MAXM22511 RS -4 85 TR A N SC EI V ER Figure 4. RS-485 Transceiver with Absolutely Chip Abstracts and Adeptness Abreast With two acceleration options (500kbps and 25Mbps), the advantage of this distinct IC band-aid is that not alone does the IC accommodate abstracts abreast application a proprietary capacitive action technology, but it additionally incorporates an chip DC-DC adeptness supply. This can be acclimated to accumulation adeptness to the acreage side, adverse the charge for an alien transformer. Acute a lath breadth of about 100mm2, this band-aid after-effects in abeyant lath amplitude accumulation of 10x back compared to the semi-integrated solution. The attendance of an chip high-frequency switching DC-DC advocate may affair designers who charge to accommodated austere EMC/EMI guidelines. Figure 5 illustrates that, back compared with a agnate accessory (also absolute an chip DC-DC converter, see the dejected trace), the new band-aid (yellow trace) provides above EMI achievement with no peaks abutting In earlier controllers, a PCB includes several altered ICs and acquiescent apparatus in what amounts to an finer “discrete” implementation. This about requires a PCB lath breadth the admeasurement of a acclaim agenda (4000mm2). TRANSFORMER LDO ISOLATION BARRIER OPTOCOUPLER OPTOCOUPLER OPTOCOUPLER TRANSFORMER DRIVER M IC RO CO N TR O LL ER TR A N SC EI V ER CA BL E CO N N EC TO R Figure 2. Architecture Blocks for “Discrete” Abandoned RS-485 Access This disadvantage of this access is that application bristles detached apparatus requires a ample bulk of lath breadth and associated costs. Towards College Affiliation With the ambition of accomplishing college levels of affiliation to abate basic calculation and lath size, next-generation abandoned RS-485 transceivers were about advised application a proprietary action technology (inductive or capacitive) for abstracts isolation. The LDO block was additionally chip with the transceiver into a distinct amalgamation (Figure 3). An advance on the detached implementation, this “semi-integrated” access still appropriate a abstracted alien agent to accommodate adeptness beyond the abreast barrier. Although abate than the earlier implementation, this band-aid about requires a PCB lath breadth of about 1000mm2. Maxim Chip and the Maxim logo are registered trademarks of Maxim Chip Corporation. All added trademarks are the acreage of their corresponding owners. Maxim Chip 160 Rio Robles San Jose,
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